Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Compose a Narrative Essay or Personal Statement This assignment will give you practice in composing a narrative essay based on personal experience. Narrative essays are among the most common types of writing assignmentsand not only in freshman composition courses. Many employers, as well as graduate and professional schools, will ask you to submit a personal essay (sometimes called a personal statement) before even considering you for an interview. Being able to compose a coherent version of yourself in words is clearly a valuable skill. Instructions Write an account of a particular incident or encounter in your life that in one way or another illustrates a stage of growing up (at any age) or of personal development. You may focus on one specific experience or on a sequence of specific experiences. The purpose of this essay is to shape and interpret a particular incident or encounter so that readers may recognize some connection between your experiences and their own. Your approach may be either humorous or seriousor somewhere in between. Consider the guidelines and suggestions that follow. Suggested Readings In each of the following essays, the author recounts and attempts to interpret a personal experience. Read these essays for ideas on how you might develop and organize the details of your own experience. Ritual in Maya Angelous Caged BirdQuality, by John GalsworthyA Hanging, by George OrwellTwo Ways of Seeing a River, by Mark Twain Composing Strategies Getting Started. Once you have settled on a topic for your paper (see the topic suggestions below), scribble anything and everything you can think of concerning the subject. Make lists, freewrite, brainstorm. In other words, generate lots of material to begin with. Later you can cut, shape, revise, and edit. Drafting. Keep in mind your purpose for writing: the ideas and impressions that you want to convey, the particular traits you want to emphasize. Provide specific details that serve to satisfy your purpose. Organizing.Ã Most of your essay will probably be organized chronologicallythat is, details will be reported moment by moment according to the order in which they occurred. In addition, make sure that you complement this narrative (at the beginning, at the end, and/or along the way) with interpretive commentaryyour explanations of the meaning of the experience. Revising. Keep your readers in mind. This is a personal essay in the sense that the information it contains is drawn from your own experience or at least filtered through your own observations. However, its not a private essayone written only for yourself or for close acquaintances. Youre writing for a general audience of intelligent adultsusually your peers in a composition class. The challenge is to write an essay that is not only interesting (vivid, precise, well-constructed) but also intellectually and emotionally inviting. Put simply, you want your readers to identify in some fashion with the people, places, and incidents that you describe. Editing. Except when youre deliberately mimicking nonstandard speech in quoted dialogue (and even then, dont overdo it), you should write your essay in correct standard English. You may write to inform, move, or entertain your readersbut dont try to impress them. Cut out any needlessly wordy expressions. Dont spend a lot of time telling how you feel or how you felt; instead, show. That is, provide the sort of specific details that will invite your readers to respond directly to your experience. Finally, save enough time to proofread carefully. Dont let surface errors distract the reader and undermine your hard work. Self-Evaluation Following your essay, provide a brief self-evaluation by responding as specifically as you can to these four questions: What part of writing this essay took the most time?What is the most significant difference between your first draft and this final version?What do you think is the best part of your paper, and why?What part of this paper could still be improved? Topic Suggestions We have all had experiences that have changed the directions of our lives. Such experiences may be momentous, such as moving from one part of the country to another or losing a family member or close friend. On the other hand, they may be experiences that did not appear particularly significant at the time but have since proved to be important. Recall such a turning point in your life, and present it so as to give the reader a sense of what your life was like before the event and how it changed afterward.Without getting too sentimental or cute, recreate your childhood perspective of a particular family or community ritual. Your purpose might be to highlight the division between the childs perspective and the adults, or it might be to illustrate the childs movement toward an adult perspective.Sometimes a significant relationship with someone can help us to mature, easily or painfully. Recount the story of such a relationship in your own life or in the life of someone you know well. If this relationship marked a turning point in your life or if it provided you with an important change of self-image, present enough information so that readers can understand the causes and effects of the change and can recognize the before-and-after portraits. Write a reminiscence of a place that has had considerable significance for you (either during your childhood or more recently)positive, negative, or both. For readers who are unfamiliar with the place, demonstrate its meaning through description, a series of vignettes, and/or an account of one or two key people or events you associate with that place.In the spirit of the familiar saying, Its the going, not the getting there, that matters, write an account of a memorable journey, important either because of the physical, emotional, or psychological experience of travel; or because of the phenomenon of leaving somewhere for an unknown experience.Additional Topic Suggestions: Narration
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Marketing and consumer - Essay Example The marketers, through segmentation, aim towards precisely recognising the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and thus considering the process as to how the customers decide to choose one alternative product or service from among several alternatives. On the other side, the customers are acquainted with segmenting themselves and generally do not observe the marketersÃ¢â¬â¢ segmentation of the market (Wedel & Kamakura, 2000). Aimed Market Segment of La! Radio The market segment aimed by La! Radio is that of male market segment. The Chairwoman at La! Radio claims that her companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand is Ã¢â¬Ëmen friendlyÃ¢â¬â¢ and mentioned that her radio station wants the men to listen to their on-air programs. Through the market survey that each marketer conducts before targeting a market segment, it has been found out by the chairwoman at Ã¢â¬ËLa! RadioÃ¢â¬â¢ that Ã¢â¬ËmenÃ¢â¬â¢ hold an urge to know more and more about Ã¢â¬ËwomenÃ¢â¬â¢. This fact is evident from the huge number of male readership to famous women magazines such as that of the Ã¢â¬ËCosmopolitanÃ¢â¬â¢ and many others. For La! Radio, in the entertainment industry, this fact with regard to the male has instigated the prospect of the male market. Answer to Question No. 2 Definition of Stakeholder A stakeholder is an entity or a person of the organisation that has a concern or stake in the actions of the organisations. ... Possible Stakeholders of La! Radio with Justification There can be five probable forms of stakeholders for La! Radio: suppliers, customers, internal entities, external entities and other stakeholders. Suppliers are the providers of equipments required for a radio station and services related to the provision of the equipments. They would hold the stake in La! Radio because it is at its initial stage and would have purchased the equipments on credit for certain time period. The suppliers would keep a close watch at the radio stationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance so that they can receive their term amount on time. Customers would consist of the listeners who love music and holds the habit of listening to radio programs and could not leave the habit even for a single day. The internal stakeholders would be the volunteers and paid staffs who are working for their respective purposes which can be earning needs or as a passion. The external stakeholders are the competitors, universities and schools . Competitors would always keep a close watch at La! RadioÃ¢â¬â¢s each step to avoid intensity in the rivalry and the universities and schools would be anxious so that the entertainment programs do not hamper the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ educational activities. The other stakeholders consist of all those who presume themselves to be stakeholders even if the radio station does not think so. Answer to Question No. 3 With the help of PRESTCOM analysis of the environmental factors that can have an impact on the establishment of La! Radio, the following factors have been evaluated: As far as the political factors are concerned, the applicant or the La! Radio would have to be eligible for holding the license under the terms and conditions of Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996. La! Radio should
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Managing Change (Assessment 2- Change analysis) - Essay Example In the first part, the example of the organization where I was working is given whereas in the next part the example of change in my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s university is explained briefly. The paper ends with recommendation and findings that have been gathered from both the examples. Part A Two years ago, I rendered my services for a local telecom company. The company possesses a large market cap and is considered as one of the leading telecom companies in the country. I was working as a customer service agent in that company and my job was going relatively fine. During my employment over there, the company underwent a substantial change. That change brought opportunities for some workers, but a large number of workers were resisting change. Among them, I was also the one. The type of change which the organization experience was Ã¢â¬ËOrganizational RestructuringÃ¢â¬â¢. The company acquired a new and growing Internet Service Provider Company. This change not only affected the employees b ut also impacted the customers since I was the once who attends customers calls and therefore I can judge their responses. Rationale for Change The basic criteria which led to this acquisition were the deeper linkages between telecom industry and internet connectivity systems. Nowadays, almost every telecom company which is offering cellular service is engaged in providing internet services as well. Our company was lacking this area of providing internet facility to our customers therefore it instantly identified a local emerging internet service provider company and acquired it immediately. The rationale for acquiring this company was that after viewing the performance and financial position of that company, our top management realized that there are substantial chances for this company to expand and grow even more in future. In this way, it will become an additional revenue generating unit for our company and the deficiency of providing internet facility will also get fixed. Chang e Process Management The merger and acquisition which are taken place in telecom industry are called as horizontal mergers because all the entities belong to the same industry. Therefore the merger between our company and the small ISP Company was also a horizontal merger. Change management process requires taking some necessary steps at the side of top management. These steps include preparing the employees and customers about the upcoming change. For acquisition, our company had to prepare the employees who were resisting change. In this regard, HR managers conducted seminar and workshops to train employees in dealing with change. Some of our valued customers were also informed about our upcoming expansion so that more trust is built between us and our customers. Apart from this, the change management process also required to downsize where it is required. Few redundant employees were fired. Some redundant departments and operations were also closed. Response to Change Responses t owards this change varied from employee to employee. Some employees who got promoted were motivated and enthusiastic whereas those who lost their jobs were certainly very depressed. The overall responses of internal management and employees can be considered as positive because large numbers of employees were motivated, positive and optimistic about this change. Everyone was expecting that this acquisition will prove to be fall in favor of our company because the right
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Customer behaviour Essay What is Electronic Commerce? Commerce The exchange of commodities, buying and selling, of products and services requiring transportation, from location to location is known as commerce. E-Commerce From a communications perspective, e-commerce is the delivery of information, products/services or payments via telephone lines, Fax, computer networks or any other means. What is Electronic Commerce? From an online perspective, e-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products and information on the internet and other online services. It refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services. Any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact. Difference between E-Commerce E-Business Electronic commerce or e-Commerce E-commerce covers online processes that touch customers, suppliers and external partners, including sales, marketing, order taking, delivery, customer service, purchasing of raw materials and supplies for production. More sophisticated system such as flight and hotel reservation system. e-Commerce breaks into two components: Online Shopping the scope of information and activities that provides the customer with the information they need to conduct business with you and make an informed buying decision. Online Purchasing the technology infrastructure for the exchange of data and the purchase of a product over the Internet. Online purchasing is a metaphor used in business-to-business e-Commerce for providing customers with an online method of placing an order, submitting a purchase order, or requesting a quotation. E-Business is a super-set of E-Commerce. E-business includes e-commerce but also covers internal processes such as production, inventory management, product development, risk management, finance, and human resources. E-business includes electronic mechanism to distribute information not directly related to buying and selling of goods. Examples: Product specifications, customer testimonials, and product reviews. Purchasing activities on your site, e.g., order forms, shopping carts, and credit card processing. Customers canÃ¢â¬â¢t interact directly with the firm. (territory barrier) History of EC The term e-commerce was originally conceived to describe the process of conducting business transactions electronically using technology from the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). These technologies, which first appeared in the late 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, allowed for the exchange of information and the execution of electronic transactions between businesses, typically in the form of electronic purchase orders and invoices. EDI and EFT were the enabling technologies that laid the groundwork for what we now know as e-commerce. The Boston Computer Exchange, a marketplace for used computer equipment started in 1982, was one of the first known examples of e-commerce. Throughout the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, the proliferation of credit cards, ATM machines and telephone banking was the next step in the evolution of electronic commerce. The birth of companies such as eBay and Amazon (launched in 1994) really began to lead the way in e-commerce. Both eBay and Amazon were among the first to establish prominent e-commerce brands. The most prominent e-commerce categories today are computers, books, office supplies, music, and a variety of electronics. Dell.com,1997 Types of Ecommerce B2B( Business to Business E-commerce) or Inter-Organizational E-commerce B2C(Ã Business to Consumer E-commerce) C2B( Consumer to Business E-commerce) C2C( Consumer to Consumer E-commerce) or Ecommerce Involving Intermediaries Intra-organizational E-commerceÃ m-commerce(Mobile E-commerce) Business to Government E-Commerce B2B (Business-to-Business) or inter-organizational Ecommerce Companies doing business with each other such as manufacturers selling to distributors and wholesalers selling to retailers. Pricing is based on quantity of order and is often negotiable. B2B is used to improve business relationship among orgz. (invoices, cheques, purchase orders, financial reports) are in electronic for. For Example: Logistic companies Benefits: Supplier Management (reduce no. of suppliers, processing coast, and cycle time) Inventory Management (list of items/product, eliminate out of stock items) Distribution Management (list of shipÃ¢â¬â¢s cargo, purchase orders etc) Channel Management (reduce labour, time saving) Payment Management (electronic payment reduce clerical errors, lower transaction fee and coast) B2C Business to Consumer In B2C seller is a business organization buyer is consumer. In this case costumer directly interacts with company, i.e. books and cdÃ¢â¬â¢s buy online and internet used as a medium for transaction. Newspapers reading and weather forecasting are used as a B2C E-commerce. This type of e-commerce improve the flow of information between firm and customers. Examples are ebay.com, and amazon.com. C2B Consumer to Business A consumer posts his project with a set budget online and within hours companies review the consumers requirements and bid on the project. The consumer reviews the bids and selects the company that will complete theÃ project. Elance empowers consumers around the world by providing the meeting ground and platform for such transactions. Freelancing C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer) or E-commerce Involving Intermediaries In this type both seller and buyers are consumers. There are many sites offering free classifieds, auctions and forums where individuals can buy and sell. PayPal where people can send and receive money online with ease. Olx.com auction service is a great example of where person-to-person transactions take place everyday. Intra-organizational E-C The purpose of Intra-organizational applications is to help a company maintain the relationships that are critical to delivering superior customer value by paying close attention to various functions in the organization. Benefits: Workgroup communications Electronic Publishing Sales force Productivity Business to Government E-C A platform for businesses to bid on government opportunities. It refers to the use of the Internet for public procurement, licensing procedures, and other government-related operations. It reduces the risk of irregularities. Income Tax Department, Excise and Taxation Department M-Commerce Mobile commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless technology Ã¢â¬â i.e., cellular telephones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Including mobile banking (when customers use their handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills). Bill payment and account reviews can all be conducted from the same handheld device. Delivery of entertainment, financial news, sports figures and traffic updates to a single mobile device. Advantages of e-commerce for businesses? Reduction of costs in the business E-commerce serves as an Ã¢â¬Å"equalizerÃ¢â¬ . It enables start-up and small- and medium-sized enterprises to reach the global market. E-commerce makes Ã¢â¬Å"mass customizationÃ¢â¬ possible. E-commerce applications in this area include easy-to-use ordering systems that allow customers to choose and order products according to their personal and unique specifications. E-commerce allows Ã¢â¬Å"network production.Ã¢â¬ This refers to the parcelling out of the production process to contractors who are geographically dispersed but who are connected to each other via computer networks. What forces are fuelling e-commerce? There are at least three major forces fuelling e-commerce: Economic forces. One of the most evident benefits of e-commerce is economic efficiency resulting from the reduction in communications costs, low-cost technological infrastructure. speedier and more economic electronic transactions with suppliers. lower global information sharing and advertising costs. Market forces. Corporations are encouraged to use e-commerce in marketing and promotion to capture international markets, both big and small. The Internet is likewise used as a medium for enhanced customer service and support. Technology forces. The development of ICT is a key factor in the growth of ecommerce. What are the components of a successful e-commerce transaction loop? To maximize the benefits of e-commerce, a number of technical as well as enabling issues have to be considered. A typical e-commerce transaction loop involves the following major players and corresponding requisites: 1. The Seller should have the following components: A corporate Web site with e-commerce capabilities (e.g., a secure transaction server); A corporate intranet so that orders are processed in an efficient manner; and IT-literate employees to manage the information flows and maintain the e-commerce system. 2. Transaction partners include: Banking institutions that offer transaction clearing services (e.g., processing credit card payments and electronic fund transfers); National and international freight companies to enable the movement of physical goods within, around and out of the country. Authentication authority that serves as a trusted third party to ensure the integrity and security of transactions. 3. Consumers (in a business-to-consumer transaction) Form a critical mass of the population with access to the Internet and disposable income enabling widespread use of credit cards; and Possess a mindset for purchasing goods over the Internet rather than by physically inspecting items. 4. Firms/Businesses that together form a critical mass of companies (especially within supply chains) with Internet access and the capability to place and take orders over the Internet. 5. Government, to establish: A legal framework governing e-commerce transactions (including electronic documents, signatures, and the like); and Legal institutions that would enforce the legal framework (i.e., laws and regulations) and protect consumers and businesses from fraud, among others. 6. Internet, the successful use of which depends on the following: A robust and reliable Internet infrastructure; and A pricing structure that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t penalize consumers for spending time on and buying goods over the Internet (e.g., a flat monthly charge for both ISP access and local phone calls).
Monday, January 20, 2020
Child Abuse Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Help me!Ã¢â¬ This is the plea of many children in America. As you read this, one little girl is crying out in pain, one little boy is begging not to be touched anymore. Many children live through everyday being abused sexually, physically, and emotionally. Ã¢â¬Å"More than two million cases of neglect and physical abuse are reported annually. Studies have shown that most parents who abuse their children were once abused as a childÃ¢â¬ (Funk & WagnallÃ¢â¬â¢s 121). According to the National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, 185 children died from child abuse in 1996. There are a lot of ways to put an end to this; it just takes some work and time. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First of all there are the children who are emotionally abused. The question is what is emotional abuse? Emotional abuse is when the child is hurt emotionally causing changes in behavior and low self-esteem. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, the parents may use extreme or bizarre forms of punishment, such as confinement of a child in a dark closet, and less severe acts, such as habitual scapegoating, belittling, or rejecting treatmentÃ¢â¬ (NCCANCH). Children who suffer from this type of abuse grow up being called bad things and never really knowing what love is, take 10-year old Carla for example. She was both physically and emotionally abused. She was neglected; the only attention she got was bad attention. Her mother called her worthless and some of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriends hit her. Childabuse.org was there for her and now Carla is doing much better (Bob Cooper). Emotional abuse, in my opinion, is a terrible type of abuse that a child could go through. Although it ma y not seem too harsh, it causes many social problems for the child. These social problems include, fear of meeting people, shyness, withdrawing from classmates, and an introverted personality. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Secondly, there is physical abuse. Physical abuse is when the child has Ã¢â¬Å"physical injury as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking or otherwise harming a child.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Coyote Ugly last 2000: Shy, aspiring songwriter Violet overcomes her stage fright, gets the man of her dreams and is offered a major recording contract after making drinks on top of a bar, clad basically in her skivvies. The movie Coyote Ugly inspire people about the striving of one person to fulfill her dream and overcoming all the hardship in life. The straggle of one person to overcome her fears with the help of people surrounding her in order to survive the big city. This movie symbolizes the growth of a person physically, emotionally, and socially. In this film the client will be immersed in a process of in-depth examination of the meaning and power of images. Images, in fact, are never neutral; their effect is that of conditioning the observer. It is vital, thus, to carry out an analysis of what an image actually is. Image based thinking will be considered both in relation to the creative process and to problem solving. The counseling will start with the philosophical concept of an idea as a mental representation. The symbolism of dreams should be evaluated in order to understand the close relationship between images and the unconscious. The psychoanalytical proposition that a film may be considered the film directorÃ¢â¬â¢s dream will be closely scrutinized. The concept of Cinematherapy is rooted in the awareness that the film viewer is conditioned by his or her individual life experience, and this in turn makes the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception highly unique. The viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s intimate interior world and life experiences condition perception of the film, and result in a highly subjective interpretation. This is due to the fact that the viewer assimilates only certain images and edits out others, all on the basis of unique individual experiences. The study of Cinematherapy will enable the viewer to understand the underlying causes of certain emotions experienced during a film, and will shed light on certain aspects of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own personality and on how others view the same situation. Ã¢â¬Å"Mining the goldÃ¢â¬ in movies means uncovering our hidden finest attributes by understanding how we project these virtues on film heroes and heroines. Identifying with a character can help us to develop inner strength as we recall forgotten inner resources and become aware of the right opportunity for those resources to be applied. Like dream work, cinema therapy allows us to gain awareness of our deeper layers of consciousness to help us move toward new perspectives or behavior as well as healing and integration of the total self. As observing helps us to Ã¢â¬Å"step backÃ¢â¬ , the bigger picture becomes more obvious. This way, watching screen movies helps us learn to understand ourselves and others more deeply in the Ã¢â¬Å"big movieÃ¢â¬ of our life. In identifying the presenting problems and goals for therapy the questions that are appropriate are by asking yourself, why would this client benefit from a cinematherapy intervention? What would this client get out of it? Can the intervention be tied back to the treatment plan? In assessing clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths such as interests, hobbies, activities, and type of employment the questions are What type of film would benefit this client: Standard movie, documentary, or instructional? What type of genre would they prefer: Comedy, drama, or science fiction? In determination of the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to understand the content of the film and recognize similarities and differences between themselves and the characters the questions are Will the client understand how to use the film as metaphor for their own life? Do they have the mental capabilities to participate in processing the content? Do they recognize the difference between fantasy and reality? By taking into account issues of diversity when choosing a film the questions suitable is Will the film be offensive, or be distracting from the real purpose of the assignment? The therapist should always watch the movie before assigning it. This is so you can process the movie with the client, or know the significant parts to discuss later. Also, it saves time from apologizing for a scene that offended the client or his/her parents. Preparation is essential to cinematherapy. The therapist should provide clients with a rationale for assigning a film. REFERENCE Berg-Cross L. , Jennings, P. & Baruch, R . (1990). Cinematherapy: Theory and Application . In: Psychotherapy in Private Practice 8, no. 1, 135-157 Peske, Nancy and Beverly West (1999) Cinematherapy: The GirlÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Movies For Every Mood. New York: Dell Ulus, Fuat(2003) Movie Therapy, Moving Therapy! The Healing Power of Film Clips in Therapeutic Settings. New Bern: Trafford Publishing. Tyson, L. , Foster, L. , & Jones, C. (2000). The process of cinematherapy as a therapeutic intervention. Alabama Counseling Association Journal,26(1), 35-41
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Molecular geometry or molecular structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms within a molecule. It is important to be able to predict and understand the molecular structure of a molecule because many of the properties of a substance are determined by its geometry. Examples of these properties include polarity, magnetism, phase, color, and chemical reactivity. Molecular geometry may also be used to predict biological activity, to design drugs or decipher the function of a molecule. The Valence Shell, Bonding Pairs, and VSEPR Model The three-dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by its valence electrons, not its nucleus or the other electrons in the atoms. The outermost electrons of an atom are its valence electrons. The valence electrons are the electrons that are most often involved in forming bonds and making molecules. Pairs of electrons are shared between atoms in a molecule and hold the atoms together. These pairs are called bonding pairs. One way to predict the way electrons within atoms will repel each other is to apply the VSEPR (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion) model. VSEPR can be used to determine a molecules general geometry. Predicting Molecular Geometry Here is a chart that describes the usual geometry for molecules based on their bonding behavior. To use this key, first draw out the Lewis structure for a molecule. Count how many electron pairs are present, including both bonding pairs and lone pairs. Treat both double and triple bonds as if they were single electron pairs. A is used to represent the central atom. B indicates atoms surrounding A. E indicates the number of lone electron pairs. Bond angles are predicted in the following order: lone pair versus lone pair repulsion lone pair versus bonding pair repulsion bonding pair versus bonding pair repulsion Molecular GeometryÃ Example There are two electron pairs around the central atom in a molecule with linear molecular geometry, 2 bonding electron pairs and 0 lone pairs. The ideal bond angle is 180Ã °. Geometry Type # of Electron Pairs Ideal Bond Angle Examples linear AB2 2 180 BeCl2 trigonal planar AB3 3 120 BF3 tetrahedral AB4 4 109.5 CH4 trigonal bipyramidal AB5 5 90, 120 PCl5 octohedral AB6 6 90 SF6 bent AB2E 3 120 (119) SO2 trigonal pyramidal AB3E 4 109.5 (107.5) NH3 bent AB2E2 4 109.5 (104.5) H2O seesaw AB4E 5 180,120 (173.1,101.6) SF4 T-shape AB3E2 5 90,180 (87.5,180) ClF3 linear AB2E3 5 180 XeF2 square pyramidal AB5E 6 90 (84.8) BrF5 square planar AB4E2 6 90 XeF4 Isomers in Molecular Geometry Molecules with the same chemical formula may have atoms arranged differently. The molecules are called isomers. Isomers may have very different properties from each other. There are different types of isomers: Constitutional or structural isomers have the same formulas, but the atoms are not connected to each other the same water.Stereoisomers have the same formulas, with the atoms bonded in the same order, but groups of atoms rotate around a bond differently to yield chirality or handedness. Stereoisomers polarize light differently from each other. In biochemistry, they tend to display different biological activity. Experimental Determination of Molecular Geometry You can use Lewis structures to predict molecular geometry, but its best to verify these predictions experimentally. Several analytical methods can be used to image molecules and learn about their vibrational and rotational absorbance. Examples include x-ray crystallography, neutron diffraction, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron diffraction, and microwave spectroscopy. The best determination of a structure is made at low temperature because increasing the temperature gives the molecules more energy, which can lead to conformation changes. The molecular geometry of a substance may be different depending on whether the sample is a solid, liquid, gas, or part of a solution. Molecular Geometry Key Takeaways Molecular geometry describes the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule.Data that may be obtained from a molecules geometry includes the relative position of each atom, bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.Predicting a molecules geometry makes it possible to predict its reactivity, color, phase of matter, polarity, biological activity, and magnetism.Molecular geometry may be predicted using VSEPR and Lewis structures and verified using spectroscopy and diffraction. References Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999), Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-19957-5.McMurry, John E. (1992), Organic Chemistry (3rd ed.), Belmont: Wadsworth, ISBN 0-534-16218-5.Miessler G.L. and Tarr D.A.Ã Inorganic ChemistryÃ (2nd ed., Prentice-Hall 1999), pp. 57-58.